The invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet Union in the year 1979, lead to the exodus of millions of Afghan Refugees into the territory of Pakistan. Initially, Afghan refugees were managed by the Government of Pakistan through “Disaster Preparedness & Relief Cell” (DPRC) in the Cabinet Division. Subsequently in the year 1980, Chief Commissionerate of Afghan Refugees in Islamabad, under the Kashmir Affairs Northern Areas & States & Frontier Regions Division (KANA & SAFRON), was created with its branch offices in Peshawar and Quetta. 

The landlocked Afghanistan has an area of 253,861 square miles with a population of approximately 37.31 million (as of Aug 2019 based on the latest United Nations Estimates).There was immense pressure on the Government of Pakistan from1978 to 1979, as the burden of Refugees was borne single-handedly by the Government of Pakistan. From 1980, two major UN Agencies i.e. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and World Food Programe (WFP) conceived their programs of assistance to the Afghan Refugees. Later, some other UN Agencies like UNICEF, WHO and FAO also joined hands in the relief efforts.

In the year 1982, number of Afghan Refugees in Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK) had arisen to 2.5 million. It was decided by the Federal Government in consultation with Punjab Government to shift about 200,000 Afghan Refugees from KPK to Punjab. The Government of Punjab considered about 14 sites for temporary settlement of Afghan Refugees. Finally it was decided to settle Refugees across river "Indus" i.e. in Village "Kot Chandna" and "Darra Tung" Tehsil Isa Khel District Mianwali on Mianwali Bannu Road. Then the camp was established in Kot Chandna which is working under the supervision of Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees Punjab. Resultantly, population of AR camp Kot chandna reached to 182,000 in 1983 which currently (2019) reduced to 13152 persons as peolpe are shifted out of the camps particularly to urban centers for their better livelihhood.